Annotated Bibliography

1. Flanagan, Brian and Calandra, Brenden. Podcasting in the Classroom. (n.d.). . Retrieved February 28, 2011, from
This article is written for teachers who are using technology in their classrooms and who wish to include the use of Podcasting. The article gives an overview of what podcasting is in general, it describes its benefits and provides issues to consider. The article describes podcasting as a cost effective way to deliver instruction, as well as having benefits for music students, foreign language students, and for collaborting across the globe. The article suggests the use of podcasting to conduct research and take notes. The article gives instruction on subscribing to podcasts online and creating and uploading podcasts. The article discusses the use of copyright issues when mixing prerecorded music and that teachers should be aware of appropriate content for younger listeners. Another issue of concern for teachers wanting to use podcasting in the classroom is having adequate technical support and file storage. This article is another example of excellent ways teachers can use technology to enhance learning in the classroom.

2.Ertmer, Peggy and Gopalakrishnan, Sangeetha. Technology-using Teachers: (n.d.). . Retrieved February 28, 2011, from
This article, Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association New Orleans, LA in April 2000, investigates how teachers perceive their own use of technology in the classroom. The article emphasizes the difference between using technology for instruction and using it to deepen learning. The article stresses the idea that technology should be used to enhance meaning and not just a way to disseminate information. Technology can be used to focus instruction on complex tasks, not just facts. Technology can create an environment where learning is student centered and directed. This article supports the assertion that there is a difference between using technology in the class and using it well.

3. Staples, A. (n.d.). Rethinking the Technology Integration Challenge: Cases from Three Urban Elementary Schools. Retrieved February 28, 2011, from
This study and resulting article looks at three urban elementary schools and the results on student learning when technology is infused in their classrooms. For all three schools the study describes the school culture and existing technology before money and resources are provided and the resulting observable changes. The study found that the keys to successful integration were aligning the use of technology with the curriculum and mission statement of the school, having clear teacher leadership at each facility, and having a private/public partnership in investing in the benefits of technology. The study concluded that often the need for new hardware/software is pitted against the cost of teaching teachers how to most effectively use the equipment. The study also concluded that in order for a school staff to buy into technology as a tool it must have clear connections to curricular objectives. The study did conclude however that there is a direct connection between the use of technology and deep, meaningful learning.

4. Koehler, MJ . (n.d.). Teachers Learning Technology by Design. Retrieved from
The main objective of this article is to outline the optimum approach for teaching teachers how to use technology effectively in the classroom. The article asserts that many teacher training institutions believe that teachers will become proficient in the use of technology merely by mastering a basic set of skills. In collaboration with the ISTE the article suggests that teacher training should include an appreciation between artifacts, users, tools, and practices. An exemplary teacher training program should keep in mind content, pedagogy, and technology while working to develop appropriate context specific strategies and representations. The article suggests that meaningful insight into technology in the classroom occurs when small groups of teachers work together to find ways to use technology to solve educational problems. Through this process teachers learn about the technology and how to use it in real life situations.

5.Hopson, Michael . (n.d.). Using a Technology-Enriched Environment to Improve Higher-Order Thinking Skills. Retrieved February 28, 2011, from
This study and ensuing article looks at fifth and sixth grade students and how significant use of technology in the classroom encourages and develops higher order thinking skills such as critical analysis and complex problem solving skills. The study suggests that twenty first century students need to know how to access information, but more importantly how to manage, analyze, critique, cross-reference, and transform information into something meaningful. The study outlines how computers in the class can be used to provide active learning tasks that require students to use complex problem solving skills. Teachers involved with the study reported that learning was more student driven in technology assisted classrooms with less emphasis on textbook driven facts acquisition. Technology transformed the role of teacher from lecturer to guide.

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